# Placement Papers: CDAC Manual Testing Question Paper

Examrace Placement Series prepares you for the toughest placement exams to top companies.

How is testing affected by object-oriented designs?

Well-engineered object-oriented design can make it easier to trace from code to internal design to functional design to requirements. While there will be little affect on black box testing (where an understanding of the internal design of the application is unnecessary), white-box testing can be oriented to the application's objects. If the application was well-designed this can simplify test design.

What is Extreme Programming and what's it got to do with testing?

Extreme Programming (XP) is a software development approach for small teams on risk-prone projects with unstable requirements. It was created by Kent Beck who described the approach in his book ‘Extreme Programming Explained’ (See the Softwareqatest. Com Books page.). Testing ( ‘extreme testing’ ) is a core aspect of Extreme Programming. Programmers are expected to write unit and functional test code first-before the application is developed. Test code is under source control along with the rest of the code. Customers are expected to be an integral part of the project team and to help develope scenarios for acceptance/black box testing. Acceptance tests are preferably automated, and are modified and rerun for each of the frequent development iterations. QA and test personnel are also required to be an integral part of the project team. Detailed requirements documentation is not used, and frequent re-scheduling, re-estimating, and re-prioritizing is expected. For more info see the XP-related listings in the Softwareqatest. Com ‘Other Resources’ section.

What is ‘Software Quality Assurance’

Software QA involves the entire software development PROCESS-monitoring and improving the process, making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed, and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. It is oriented to ‘prevention’ (See the Bookstore section's ‘Software QA’ category for a list of useful books on Software Quality Assurance.).

What is ‘Software Testing’

Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg, ‘if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B, and does C, then D should happen’ ). The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should. It is oriented to ‘detection’ (See the Bookstore section's ‘Software Testing’ category for a list of useful books on Software Testing.).

Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together, with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure.

What are some recent major computer system failures caused by software bugs?

A major U. S. Retailer was reportedly hit with a large government fine in October of 2003 due to web site errors that enabled customers to view one anothers'online orders.

News stories in the fall of 2003 stated that a manufacturing company recalled all their transportation products in order to fix a software problem causing instability in certain circumstances. The company found and reported the bug itself and initiated the recall procedure in which a software upgrade fixed the problems.

In August of 2003 a U. S. Court ruled that a lawsuit against a large online brokerage company could proceed; the lawsuit reportedly involved claims that the company was not fixing system problems that sometimes resulted in failed stock trades, based on the experiences of 4 plaintiffs during an 8-month period. A previous lower court's ruling that “… Six miscues out of more than 400 trades does not indicate negligence.” was invalidated.

In April of 2003 it was announced that the largest student loan company in the U. S. Made a software error in calculating the monthly payments on 800, 000 loans. Although borrowers were to be notified of an increase in their required payments, the company will still reportedly lose $8 million in interest. The error was uncovered when borrowers began reporting inconsistencies in their bills. News reports in February of 2003 revealed that the U. S. Treasury Department mailed 50, 000 Social Security checks without any beneficiary names. A spokesperson indicated that the missing names were due to an error in a software change. Replacement checks were subsequently mailed out with the problem corrected, and recipients were then able to cash their Social Security checks. In March of 2002 it was reported that software bugs in Britain's national tax system resulted in more than 100, 000 erroneous tax overcharges. The problem was partly attibuted to the difficulty of testing the integration of multiple systems. A newspaper columnist reported in July 2001 that a serious flaw was found in off-the-shelf software that had long been used in systems for tracking certain U. S. Nuclear materials. The same software had been recently donated to another country to be used in tracking their own nuclear materials, and it was not until scientists in that country discovered the problem, and shared the information, that U. S. Officials became aware of the problems. According to newspaper stories in mid-2001, a major systems development contractor was fired and sued over problems with a large retirement plan management system. According to the reports, the client claimed that system deliveries were late, the software had excessive defects, and it caused other systems to crash. In January of 2001 newspapers reported that a major European railroad was hit by the aftereffects of the Y2K bug. The company found that many of their newer trains would not run due to their inability to recognize the date 31/12/2000; the trains were started by altering the control system's date settings. News reports in September of 2000 told of a software vendor settling a lawsuit with a large mortgage lender; the vendor had reportedly delivered an online mortgage processing system that did not meet specifications, was delivered late, and didn't work. In early 2000, major problems were reported with a new computer system in a large suburban U. S. Public school district with 100, 000 + students; problems included 10, 000 erroneous report cards and students left stranded by failed class registration systems; the district's CIO was fired. The school district decided to reinstate it's original 25-year old system for at least a year until the bugs were worked out of the new system by the software vendors. In October of 1999 the$125 million NASA Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft was believed to be lost in space due to a simple data conversion error. It was determined that spacecraft software used certain data in English units that should have been in metric units. Among other tasks, the orbiter was to serve as a communications relay for the Mars Polar Lander mission, which failed for unknown reasons in December 1999. Several investigating panels were convened to determine the process failures that allowed the error to go undetected.

Bugs in software supporting a large commercial high-speed data network affected 70, 000 business customers over a period of 8 days in August of 1999. Among those affected was the electronic trading system of the largest U. S. Futures exchange, which was shut down for most of a week as a result of the outages.

In April of 1999 a software bug caused the failure of a $1.2 billion U. S. Military satellite launch, the costliest unmanned accident in the history of Cape Canaveral launches. The failure was the latest in a string of launch failures, triggering a complete military and industry review of USA space launch programs, including software integration and testing processes. Congressional oversight hearings were requested. A small town in Illinois in the U. S. Received an unusually large monthly electric bill of$7 million in March of 1999. This was about 700 times larger than its normal bill. It turned out to be due to bugs in new software that had been purchased by the local power company to deal with Y2K software issues.

In early 1999 a major computer game company recalled all copies of a popular new product due to software problems. The company made a public apology for releasing a product before it was ready.

Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance?

Solving problems is a high-visibility process; preventing problems is low-visibility. This is illustrated by an old parable:

In ancient China there was a family of healers, one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord. The physician was asked which of his family was the most skillful healer. He replied.

“I tend to the sick and dying with drastic and dramatic treatments, and on occasion someone is cured and my name gets out among the lords.”

“My elder brother cures sickness when it just begins to take root, and his skills are known among the local peasants and neighbors.”

“My eldest brother is able to sense the spirit of sickness and eradicate it before it takes form. His name is unknown outside our home.”