3i Infotech Placement: Sample Questions 225 - 226 of 1245

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Question 225


Write in Short

Short Answer▾

What is difference between pass by reference and pass by value?


Difference between Pass by Value and Pass by Reference
Pass by valuePass by reference
Passes an argument by valuePasses an argument by reference.
Sends copy of the data.Passes memory address of the data that is stored.
Change by the called function does not affect the actual value.Changes done by the called function effect the original data.

Question 226


Describe in Detail


What is “transparent DBMS”


  • It is one, which keeps its Physical Structure hidden from user.
  • A query with respect to DBMS relates to user commands that are used to interact with a database.
  • The query language can be classified into data definition language and data manipulation language.
  • Transparent hides implementation details from the user.
  • For example in a centralized DBMS, data independence is a form of transparency it hides changes in the definition and organization of the data from the user.
  • A DDBMS may provide a various· levels of transparency.
  • They all participate in the same overall objective: to make the use of the distributed database, equivalent to that of a centralized database.

Four types of transparency in DDBMS:

  • Distribution transparency
  • Transaction transparency
  • Performance transparency;
  • DBMS transparency.

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