3i Infotech Papers: Sample Questions 285 - 286 of 1245

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Question number: 285

» Database » MySQL

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

What is 4NF?


Forth Normal Form (4NF)

Forth Normal Form (4NF)

Forth Normal Form (4NF)

  • Tables cannot have multi-valued dependencies on a Primary Key.

  • A relation schema R is said to be in 4NF if for every Multivalued dependency X Y that holds over R, one of following is true

  • X is subset or equal to (or) XY = R.

  • X is a super key.

Question number: 286

» Database » MySQL

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

How are exceptions handled in PL/SQL? Give some of the internal exceptions ‘name


  • Exceptions are run-time errors from design faults, coding mistakes, hardware failures, and many other sources.

  • Not be captured at the time of compilation and hence are handled only at the run-time.

  • Example- if PL/SQL engine receives an instruction to divide any number by ‘0’ then an exception is thrown.

  • Only raised at the run-time by the PL/SQL engine.

There are two type of exceptions:

  1. System-defined Exceptions
  2. User-defined Exceptions

System-defined Exceptions:

  • Two types of system defined exception

    • Named system exceptions

    • Un-named system exceptions.

  • Named system exceptions:

    • Predefined exceptions created by the SQL to handle the known types of errors.

    • They are defined by the SQL and need not be redefined by the user.

    • For example, ‘ZERO_DIVIDE’ is the predefined exception to handle division by zero.

  • Un-named system exceptions:

    • Have predefined error numbers and error code/message.

    • Do not occur as frequently as named exceptions.

User -Define Exception:

  • Defined by the developers based on the business rules.

  • Are declared and assigned error code and names and handled in the exception block by calling the names as we do it in other exceptions.