3i Infotech Papers: Sample Questions 417 - 419 of 1245

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Question number: 417

» Languages » C & C Plus Plus

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

  1. void main ()
  2. {
  3.     unsigned i = 1;
  4.     /* unsigned char k = -1 ⇒ k = 255; */
  5.     signed j = -1;
  6.     /* char k = -1 ⇒ k = 65535 */
  7.     /* unsigned or signed int k = -1 ⇒ k = 65535 */
  8.     if (i<j)
  9.     printf("less");
  10.     else if (i>j)
  11.     printf ("greater");
  12.     else if (i==j)
  13.     printf ("equal");
  14. }

Explanation

  • Program defines signed and unsigned values

Table showing the program

Table showing the program

unsigned i = 1;

  • define the unsigned variable i = 1

signed j =-1;

  • define the signed variable j=-1

if (i < j)

printf (“less”);

else if (i > j)

printf (“greater”);

else if (i==j)

printf (“equal”);

}

  • check the if condition

    if (1 < -1)

    printf (“less”);

  • printf prints “less” because unsigned can hold a larger positive value, and no negative value.

  • Signed integers can hold both positive and negative numbers.

  • Unsigned uses the leading bit as a part of the value, while the signed version uses the left-most-bit to identify if the number is positive or negative.

Question number: 418

» Basic CS » Operating System

Short Answer Question▾

Write in Short

What are the sub-components of I/O manager in Windows NT?

Explanation

  • Network redirector/server

  • Cache systems

  • File systems

  • Network driver

  • Device driver

Question number: 419

» Basic CS » Operating System

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

What are the four layers that Windows NT has in order to archive independence?

Explanation

Hardware abstraction layer:

Understanding of hardware abstraction layer

Understanding of Hardware Abstraction Layer

Understanding of hardware abstraction layer

  • HAL or hardware abstraction layer is the logical abstraction between physical hardware and software.

  • Provides a device driver interface allowing communication with hardware.

  • Main purpose is to connect different hardware to the OS- system peripherals.

Kernel:

Define structure of kernel

Define Structure of Kernel

Define structure of kernel

  • The central part of an operating system.

  • Manages main aspects like RAM, memory, CPU scheduling, security etc.

  • Manages communication between the software and the hardware.

Main tasks of the kernel:

  • Process management

  • Device management

  • Memory management

  • Interrupt handling

  • I/O communication

  • File system

Subsystems:

  • The protected subsystems act as mediators between the user-level application and the NT executive.

  • Subsystem allows NT to provide each process a container virtualizing the operating system.

  • Every application runs only in the subsystem for which it was designed- sub-system is determined at launch of application in Windows NT

System services:

Operating system services

Operating System Services

Operating system services

  • System supplies different kinds of services to both the user and the programs.

  • Provides application programs an environment to execute.

Common program services:

  • User interface

  • Program execution runtime

  • Input/output operations

  • Communication.

  • Error detection

  • Accounting

  • Security and protection

Common user services:

  • Authentication

  • Program execution

  • Protection