3i Infotech Papers: Sample Questions 639 - 640 of 1245

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Question number: 639

» Languages » C & C Plus Plus

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

List out some of the OODBMS available.


  • GEMSTONE/OPAL of Gemstone systems.

  • ONTOS of Ontos.

  • Objectivity of Objectivity Inc.

  • Versant of Versant objects technology.

  • Object store of Object Design.

  • ARDENT of ARDENT software.

  • POET of POET software.

OODBMS applications

OODBMS Applications

OODBMS applications

Question number: 640

» Basic CS » Networks

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

What are important topologies for networks?


Network topology in image

Network Topology in Image

Network topology in image

Bus topology:

BUS topology in image

BUS Topology in Image

BUS topology in image

  • A common backbone to connect all devices.

  • Also called a line topology.

  • Provides shared single cable communication medium for all devices connected using interface connector.


  • Relatively easy to install and requires less cabling.

  • Works best with a limited number of devices.

  • Bus topology costs very less.


  • Difficult to detect and troubleshoot fault at individual station.

  • Not suitable for networks with heavy traffic.

  • Might require exclusive access to the bus for sending data.

Star topology:

Star topology in image

Star Topology in Image

Star topology in image

  • One of the most common network setups.

  • Each node connects to a central network device like a hub, switch, or computer.

  • Star topology is also known as a star network.


  • Easy to add another computer.

  • If one computer on the network fails, the rest of the network continues to function normally.


  • Not scalable- the central network device determines the performance and number of nodes the network can handle.

  • Single point of failure- if the central computer, hub, or switch fails, the entire network goes down and all computers are disconnected from the network.

Ring topology:

Ring topology in image

Ring Topology in Image

Ring topology in image

  • Configuration with devices connected to each other in a circular shape.

  • Also called active topology- messages are passed to each device in the ring.

  • Highly efficient and handles heavier loads better than bus topology.


  • All data flows in one direction, reducing the chance of packet collisions.

  • A network server is not needed to control network connectivity between each workstation.

  • Data can transfer between workstations at high speeds.


  • The entire network will be impacted if one workstation shuts down.

  • The hardware needed to connect each workstation more expensive than Ethernet cards and hubs.

Tree topology

Tree topology in image

Tree Topology in Image

Tree topology in image

  • Special structure with connected elements arranged like the branches of a tree.

  • A tree network is a bus network of star networks- number of star networks connected using bus.

  • Also called Expanded Star Topology.


  • Expansion is easy.

  • Error detection and correction is easy.

  • If one segment is damaged, other segments are not affected.

  • Each segment is provided with dedicated point-to-point wiring to the central hub


  • Maintenance of many nodes and segments becomes difficult.

  • Scalability of the network depends on the type of cable used.

Mesh topology:

Mesh topology in image

Mesh Topology in Image

Mesh topology in image

  • Each of the network node, computer and other devices, are interconnected with one another.

  • A true mesh topology is the one where every node is connected to every other node in the network- provides fastest possible way to reach a computer from any other computer.

  • Commonly used in wireless networks.

  • Flooding or routing technique is used in mesh topology.


  • Data can be transmitted simultaneously from devices.

  • Even if one of the components fails there is always an alternative

  • Expansion and modification in topology can be done without disrupting other nodes


  • Chances of redundancy in many of the network connections.

  • Cost of this network is way too high compared to other network topologies.

Hybrid topology:

Hybrid topology in image

Hybrid Topology in Image

Hybrid topology in image

  • Network topology is a connection of various links and nodes, communicating with each other for transfer of data.

  • There is no strict arrangement of nodes and devices.

  • For example, a ring topology in one department connected with tree topology in another department using a bus- hybrid topology.


  • Reliable

  • Scalable

  • Flexible

  • Effective


  • Complexity of design

  • Costly hub

  • Costly infrastructure