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Question number: 787

» Basic CS » Operating System

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

What is mutant?


  • Mutant provides kernel mode or user mode in Windows NT, mutual exclusion with the notion of ownership.

  • Window NT is a Microsoft window personal computer operating system it is designed for users and businesses needing capacity.

  • The server is designed for business machines that need to provide services for network-attached computers.

  • Internal part of biology that mutation in a gene, it is possible to establish the normal function of the gene.

User Mode:

  • Executing code has no ability to directly access hardware or memory.

  • When run code in user mode delegate to system API to access hardware or memory.

  • The protection by this sort of isolation, crashes in user mode is always recoverable.

Kernel mode:

  • The executing code has complete and unrestricted access to the underlying hardware.

  • Execute any CPU instruction and reference any memory address.

  • Generally reserved for the lowest-level.

Question number: 788

» Operating System » Unix

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Brief the initial process sequence while the system boots up.


Define boots system.

Define Boots System.

Define boots system.

  • BIOS:

    • Loads boot sector from the storage media.

    • The order of booting can be changed using BIOS.

  • Master Boot Record:

    • DOS option includes MS-DOS, windows.

    • Is the first 512 bytes off the disk containing things like dev/had executed by BIOS.

    • The standard MBR looks for the primary partition.

  • LILO:

    • The kernel image is loaded without understanding file system code.

    • Image of kernel is persisted as raw disk to load the sequence.

    • The menu available in boot prompts for the partition or kernel for image to load first 512 bytes of partition.

  • Kernel:

    • Initializes devices, loads ‘initrd’ optionally, mounts root file system that is specified by lilo or loading with root = parameter.

  • Run levels:

    • The default level is defined in etc/inittab.

    • Ex: id: 3: initdefault