Basic CS-Operating System [3i Infotech Placement]: Sample Questions 69 - 70 of 89

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Question 69

Operating System

Write in Short

Short Answer▾

What is busy waiting?


Understanding of Busy Waiting
  • Repeated execution of code loop while waiting for event is called busy waiting.
  • CPU is not engaged productive activity during this period that is there is no progress toward completion.
  • For example, process can loop until it gets permission to enter its critical section- executing an instruction or set of instructions that test variables to gain entrance.
  • Another example is process waiting for IO for example, keyboard input.

Question 70

Operating System

Describe in Detail


List out some reasons for process termination.


The Process Termination
  • Normal completion
    • Process completes and releases the CPUs.
  • Time limit exceeded:
    • Process runs longer than the specified total time limit.
    • A number of possibilities for the type of time are measured.
  • Memory unavailable
    • A process requires more memory that system fails to provide.
  • Bounds violation:
    • Process tries to access a memory location it is not allowed access.
  • Protection error
    • Uses a resource that it is not allowed to use.
  • Arithmetic error:
    • Process issues an invalid instruction and needs to terminate.
  • Time overrun
    • Process exceeds the allowed time waiting for a resource.
    • Process fails to release a resource in specified time.
  • I/O failure:
    • A process attempts to use a non-functional I/O device.
  • Invalid instruction:
    • Process attempts to execute an invalid instruction (likely from an incorrect memory address) .
  • Privileged instruction:
    • Process tries to execute an instruction reserved only for OS.
  • Data misuse:
    • A piece of data used by the process is wrong or not initialized.
  • Operator or OS intervention:
    • The operator or the operating system has terminated the process- for example due to deadlock.
  • Parent termination.
    • Parent process requests termination of child process.
    • In addition, when parent is terminated, child process is also terminated.

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