Languages [Hughes Placement]: Sample Questions 3 - 5 of 9

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Question 3

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What is CMRR regarding Op-Amp?

Explanation

  • CMRR stands for Common Mode Rejection Ratio. It is a measure of ability of op-amp or any instrument to reject interference which is common to both input terminals. It can be defined as ratio of differential mode gain to the common mode gain.
  • Ideally common mode gain of the amplifier is 0 if both the inputs are identical and differential gain is infinity. So, CMRR has to be infinite ideally. It is expressed in decibels.
  • CMRR =
  • CMRR (dB) = 20 log

Question 4

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What is pipeline architecture?

Explanation

  • Pipeline architecture is used to increase the instruction throughput. A pipelined architecture processor will not wait for the result of previous operations; it fetches and starts to execute the next instruction. Here, the instruction cycle is broken up into a series called pipeline. These pipelines are executed in parallel and instructions concurrently.
  • Pipeline stages for RISC processors are,
  1. Instruction fetch
  2. Instruction decode and operand fetch
  3. Execute instruction
  4. Memory access
  5. Write back

Question 5

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If the cache access time is 1 nano seconds and main memory access time is 2 nano seconds and hit ratio is 0.9, then calculate the average access time.

Explanation

Relation between average access time, hit ratio, cache access time and memory access time is,

Where, Tavg = average access time

h = hit ratio

1 - h = miss ratio

Tc = cache access time

Tm = memory access time

Substituting values in equation (i) ,

Average access time is 1.1 nano seconds.

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