Redpine Infotech Papers: Sample Questions 13 - 14 of 19

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Question number: 13

» Basic CS » Networks

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

What is the use of ICMP in TCS/IP stack?


Understanding of ICMP

Understanding of ICMP

Understanding of ICMP

  • ICMP is a supporting protocol in the internet protocol suit.

  • Used by network devices, including routers, to send error messages and operational information.

  • ICMP differs from transport protocols such as TCP and UDP- it is not typically used to exchange data between systems.

  • For example, the ping command in a TCP/IP application- sends an “echo” packet to a specified server machine via the ICMP protocol.

  • TCP/IP protocol stack is first layer introducing virtual network abstraction.

  • Physical implementation details are hidden under the IP layer.

IP Layer

  • Provides connection-less delivery system.

  • If errors occur in the physical layer- IP protocol guarantees transmission is terminated successfully.

  • A connection oriented reliable branch and a connection-less unreliable branch both join on top of the internet protocol.

Question number: 14

» Basic CS » Data Structures

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

In which data structure recursion can be used?


Define stack applications.

Define Stack Applications.

Define stack applications.

  • Stacks and queues can use data structure recursion.

  • Stacks and queues allow elements to be popped and pushed.

  • Each recursion removes one element from stack or queue and perform the function.

  • Recursion is a special case of nested functions where calls are to the same function, or the same function is called in a cyclic manner.

  • Most recursions use the call stacks because it is simpler to write and read.

  • The call stack usually has limited space, is more expensive perform-wise, and program can run out of space since the call stack is not managed by the program.

  • Big stacks are thus declared explicitly and allocate on the heap.