# TCS Papers: Sample Questions 392 - 393 of 502

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## Question number: 392

### Write in Short

What is fixed size framing?

### Explanation

• Frames are used as they increase reliability- a message packed in one frame would require retransmission of the whole message even on a single-bit error.

• Frames can be of fixed or variable size. In fixed-size framing, there is no need for delimiter at boundaries.

• Ex: ATM wide-area network uses frames of fixed size called cells.

## Question number: 393

Essay Question▾

### Describe in Detail

Given the bitwise operators in c

### Explanation

• In C, following 6 operators are bitwise

• & (bitwise AND): Takes two numbers as operands and does AND on every bit of two numbers. The result of AND is 1 only if both bits are 1.

• | (bitwise OR): Takes two numbers as operands and does OR on every bit of two numbers. The result of OR is 1 any of the two bits is 1.

• ^ (bitwise XOR): Takes two numbers as operands and does XOR on every bit of two numbers. The result of XOR is 1 if the two bits are different.

• < < (left shift): Takes two numbers, left shifts the bits of the first operand determined by the second operand.

• > > (right shift): Takes two numbers, right shifts the bits of the first operand as defined by second operand.

• ~ (bitwise NOT): Takes one number and inverts all its bits

• Example:

1. `#include<stdio.h>`
2. `int main()`
3. `{`
4. `    unsigned char x = 7, y = 12;`
5. `    printf("x = %d, y = %d ", x, y);`
6. `    printf("x&y = %d ", x&y);`
7. `    printf("x|y = %d ", x|y);`
8. `    printf("x^y = %d ", x^y);`
9. `    printf("~x = %d ", x = ~x);`
10. `    printf("y<<1 = %d ", y<<1);`
11. `    printf("y>>1 = %d ", y>>1);`
12. `    return 0;`
13. `}`
• Output:

x = 7, y = 12

x&y = 4

x|y = 15

x^y = 11

~x = 248

Y < < 1 = 24

y > > 1 = 6