TCS Papers: Sample Questions 246 - 247 of 502

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Question number: 246

» Basic CS » Networks

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

What is Gateway-to-Gateway protocol?

Explanation

  • It is an obsolete protocol that routed datagrams between Internet gateways for exchanging routing information between Internet core routers.

  • Designed as an Internet Protocol (IP) similar to the TCP and UDP.

  • Gateway-to-Gateway protocol or GGP operates like routing information protocol using distance vector algorithm.

    • Router starts in a null state, assuming all links are down.

    • Routing information is then communicated by sending GGP routing update messages.

  • GGP was limited to un-sub-netted classful networks.

The Gateway-to-Gateway protocol

The Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol

The Gateway-to-Gateway protocol

Question number: 247

» Basic CS » Networks

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

What is checksum?

Explanation

  • A checksum is an error-detection method where transmitter computes a numerical value based on number of set or unset bits in a message and sends it along with each message frame.

  • At the receiver end, the same checksum function (formula) is applied to the message to retrieve the numerical value. If the computed checksum value matches the sent value, the transmission is considered successful and error-free.

  • A checksum is also called a hash sum.

  • Checksum is used by the higher layer protocols (TCP/IP) for error detection

  • Both TCP and UDP communication layers provide a checksum count and verification as one of their services.

Image shows the checksum

Image Shows the Checksum

Given the image is define the checksum example