Basic CS [TCS Placement]: Sample Questions 43 - 44 of 196

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Question 43

Basic CS

Describe in Detail


What is checksum?


  • A checksum is an error-detection method where transmitter computes a numerical value based on number of set or unset bits in a message and sends it along with each message frame.
  • At the receiver end, the same checksum function (formula) is applied to the message to retrieve the numerical value. If the computed checksum value matches the sent value, the transmission is considered successful and error-free.
  • A checksum is also called a hash sum.
  • Checksum is used by the higher layer protocols (TCP/IP) for error detection
  • Both TCP and UDP communication layers provide a checksum count and verification as one of their services.
Given the Image is Define the Checksum Example

Question 44


Write in Short

Short Answer▾

Which is the simplest file structure? (sequential, indexed, random)


  • Sequential is the simplest file structure
  • In a sequential file records can only be accessed one after another from beginning to end
  • Records are stored one after another in auxiliary storage, such as tape or disk finally culminated with EOF (end-of-file) .
  • The operating system has no information about record addresses, it only knows where the whole file is stored and that the records are sequential.
Given the Image is Define the Sequential File Structure

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