# Basic CS [TCS Placement]: Sample Questions 142 - 143 of 196

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## Question 142

Basic CS

### Explanation

- “Semantic gap” is difference between high-level programming sets, and the computing instructions in machine language.
- This calls for ways of mediating between high-level language and basic machine language.
- Another way to look at it is as the gap between what applications expects and what the underlying technology can provide.

## Question 143

Basic CS

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### Describe in Detail

Essay▾List out few of the applications that make use of multilinked structures?

### Explanation

Sparse matrix:- in computer programming, a matrix can be defined with a 2-dimensional array. Any array with ‘m’ column and ‘n’ rows represents a matrix. There may be situations in which a matrix contains more zero values than NON-ZERO values. Such matrix is known as sparse matrix.

- In above example matrix, there are only 6 non-zero elements (those are 9, 8,4, 2,5 and 2) and matrix size is .
- Here the first row in the right side table is filled with values 5,6, & 6 which indicates that it is a sparse matrix with 5 rows, 6 columns, and 6 non-zero values.
- Second row is filled with 0,4, & 9 which indicates the value in the matrix at 0
^{th}row, 4^{th}column is 9. - In the same way the remaining non-zero values also follows the similar pattern.
- This table can be stored in the multilinked structures.
- Index Generation: In database systems, an index (IDX) data structure is defined on columns to speed data retrieval. An index is a small copy of a database table sorted by key values.