Basic CS-Networks [TCS Placement]: Sample Questions 77 - 78 of 133

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Question 77


Describe in Detail


What are the types of errors?


There are two types of error

Single-Bit error

  • Only one bit of given data unit (such as a byte, character, or data unit) is changed from 1 to 0 or from 0 to 1.
  • Least likely type of errors in serial data transmission but can happen in parallel data transmission- for example, if 16 wires are used to send all 16 bits of a word at the same time and one of the wires is noisy, one bit is corrupted in each word.
Given the Image is Define the Single-Bit Error

Burst Error

  • Two or more bits in the data unit have changed from 0 to 1 or vice-versa.
  • doesn՚t necessary occur in consecutive bits.
  • The length of the burst error is measured from the first corrupted bit to the last corrupted bit. Some bits in between may not be corrupted.
  • Burst errors are mostly likely to happen in serial transmission where duration of the noise is normally longer than the duration of a single bit, which means that the noise affects many bits of data.
Given the Image is Defining the Burst Error

Question 78


Describe in Detail


What are the responsibilities of Application Layer?


  • Application Layer enables access to the network.
  • It provides user interfaces and support for services such as e-mail, shared database management and other types of distributed information services, like:
    • Network virtual terminal

      Allows user to log on to a remote host.

    • File Transfer, Access and Management (FTAM)

      Standard mechanism to access and manage files via remote computer.

    • Mail services

      Provides e-mail forwarding and storage.

    • Directory Services

      Provides access for global information about various services.

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