Basic CS-Networks [TCS Placement]: Sample Questions 121 - 122 of 133

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Question 121

Networks
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Describe in Detail

Essay▾

What is pipelining?

Explanation

  • In networking a task begun before the previous task has ended is known as pipelining.
  • Pipelining in a processor allows storing and executing many instructions in an orderly way. Here multiple instructions are overlapped during execution.
  • Pipeline is divided into stages connected with one another. Like a pipe instructions enter from one end and exit from another end. Each “stage” of pipeline consists of an input register followed by a combinational circuit. The register holds data and combinational circuit performs operations on it. The output of combinational circuit is applied to the input register of the next segment.
  • Pipeline system like the modern day assembly line setup in factories increases the overall instruction throughput.
Given the Image is Define the Machine Cycle with Pipelining

Question 122

Networks
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Describe in Detail

Essay▾

What is framing?

Explanation

  • Framing in data link layer separates a message from one source to a destination, or from other messages to other destinations, by adding a sender address and a destination address.
  • The destination address defines where the packet has to go and the sender address helps recipient acknowledge the receipt.
  • The efficiency of any error detection scheme decreases as the length of the data increases. Thus, small frames increase the reliability.
  • Types:-
    • Fixed Size Framing: Here boundaries to the frame are not provided as length of the frame is known.
    • Variable Size Framing: Requires end of frame marker. For this character oriented and bit oriented approach is used.
      • Character oriented

        ASCII characters are sent- byte stuffing is required

      • Bit oriented

        Bits are sent in this- bit stuffing is required

Given the Image is Define the Framing

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